RUS

“The Vth international action
of "The Nobel committee"
(The Kingdom of Norway and The Kingdom of Sweden),
the author of the unique cognitive modeling technology
and the scientific direction "Cognitive computer science,
cognitive modeling technology for the system and financial analysis"
("AUT CMT SFA"), academician of (natural) sciences
("SIO "ACNS"") Vetrov A.N.,
"The international Higher education academy of sciences" ("IHEAS"),
"The Russian academy of (natural) sciences" ("RA(N)S"),
"SIO "Academy of cognitive natural sciences"" ("SIO "ACNS""),
"The Administration of Saint-Petersburg city" and "The Government of RF"
at support of "The Presidents of RF and the foreign countries"
due to means of the budget, sponsors, interested and
"The Nobel prize"
the procedure of the performance with the scientific reports and rewarding
in organizations-participants,
the presenters of diplomas, medals and
"The Nobel prize"
in
"The Nobel committee",
the creation of products as valuable monuments
of architecture, town-planning and landscape-gardening art,
important objects of historical, cultural, art and scientific heritage
for (non)residents at the international level,
the demonstration of achievements in the field
of technology, architecture and building
in "The park of the 50
th-century of The Great October socialist revolution
named after V.I. Uljanov (Lenin)"
and
"Saint-Petersburg exhibition centre
named after L.I. Brezhnev
" ("SPbEC")
at
"Exhibition of achievements of science and technology
named after A.A. Sobchak
" ("EAST")
with accommodation in "The hotel "Karelia"" ("The group of hotels "Intourist"")”

[from the 01st of January 2016 y. to the 31st of December 2016 y.] (part 1)
[from
the 01st of January 2017 y. to the 31st of December 2017 y.] (part 2)
[from
the 01st of January 2018 y. to the 31st of December 2018 y.] (part 3)

It is carried out according to the letter from the 27th of December 2011 y. №A26-13-808834 and the 27th of February 2013 y. №I-17399
in reply to application of “AUT CMT SFA”, academician of (natural) sciences (“SIO "ACNS"”) Vetrov A.N. to the name
of “The President of RF” Putin V.V. and “The Chairman of The Government of RF” Medvedev D.A.
(download),
also
according to the letter from the 03.04.2014 y. №0020/291 in reply to application from the 25.03.2014 y. №460
from “AUT CMT SFA”, academician of (natural) sciences (“SIO "ACNS"”) Vetrov A.N. to the name
of the rector of “SPbSETU "LETI"”, d.t.s., prof. Kutuzov V.M. and the vice-rector in training work of “SPbSETU "LETI",
the vice-rector in work with students and social questions of “SPbSETU "LETI"”, d.t.s., prof. Lysenko N.V. (download)
and according to my application from the 16.09.2014 y. to the name of the head of “ANCO HPE "IBI"(download).

 

Dear citizens of The Russian Federation and the foreign countries!

 

We invite You to take part in “The Vth international action
of "The Nobel committee" (The Kingdom of Norway and The Kingdom of Sweden),
the author of the unique cognitive modeling technology and the scientific direction
"Cognitive computer science, cognitive modeling technology for the system and financial analysis"
("AUT CMT SFA"), academician of (natural) sciences ("SIO "ACNS"") Vetrov A.N.,
"The international Higher education academy of sciences" ("IHEAS"),
"The Russian academy of (natural) sciences" ("RA(N)S"),
"SIO "Academy of cognitive natural sciences"" ("SIO "ACNS""),
"The Administration of Saint-Petersburg city" and "The Government of RF"
at support of "The Presidents of RF and the foreign countries"
due to means of the budget, sponsors, interested and "The Nobel prize" –
the procedure of the performance with the scientific reports and rewarding in organizations-participants,
the presenters of diplomas, medals and "The Nobel prize" in "The Nobel committee",
the creation of products as valuable monuments
of architecture, town-planning and landscape-gardening art,
important objects of historical, cultural, art and scientific heritage
for (non)residents at the international level,
the demonstration of achievements in the field of technology, architecture and building
in "The park of the 50
th-century of The Great October socialist revolution named after V.I. Uljanov (Lenin)"
and "Saint-Petersburg exhibition centre named after L.I. Brezhnev" ("SPbEC")
at "Exhibition of achievements of science and technology named after A.A. Sobchak" ("EAST")
with accommodation in "The hotel "Karelia"" ("The group of hotels "Intourist"")”.

 

The table of contents of the printing manuscript (scientific monography)
and the table of contents of the hand-written manuscripts (lectures)
of the main participant of “The international scientific competition named after A. Nobel”
“AUT CMT SFA”, acad. of (nat.) sci. (“SIO "ACNS"”) Vetrov A.N.
on the nominations “Literature” and “Peace” (“Peacemaking problems”)
(the dialectic-materialistic approach in the philosophy of science and technics)

“Knowledge is power”

Francis Bekon

“The philosophy of science without history of science is empty,

and the history of science without philosophy of science is blind”

Imre Lakatos

 

I. The table of contents of the printing manuscript
“The features of evolution of the theory of information and information technologies
on a threshold of the XXI
st century”
(scientific monography)

List of definitions

4

List of reductions and symbols

5

Introduction

7

1. Basic concepts of the theory of information and characteristic features of information

10

1.1. Information, its properties, information exchange and computer science conceptually

12

1.2. Types of sources and consumers of information

18

1.3. Features of collecting and classification of information

19

1.4. Process of information exchange and its structure

20

1.5. Main approaches (criteria) to classification of characteristics of information

24

1.6. Principles and levels of information exchange

30

1.7. Range of problems of computer science on the way of informatization as a target vector of development
of information technology

32

2. Concept of information technology and its types

34

2.1. Information revolution in the public relations as a factor of development of science and technology

36

2.2. Stages of development of information technologies

39

2.3. Requirements and components of information technology

43

2.4. Tool base of information technology

45

2.5. Types of modern information technology

49

2.5.1. Information technology of data mining (acquisition)

51

2.5.2. Information technology of data processing

52

2.5.3. Information technology of data storage

54

2.5.4. Information technology of data transmission

56

2.5.5. Information technology of support of decision-making

62

2.5.6. Information technology of management in technical systems

65

2.5.7. Information technology of support of the financial analysis

66

2.5.8. Information technology of management at the enterprise

72

2.5.9. Information technology of accounting and audit at the enterprise

85

2.5.10. Information technology of automation of document flow at the enterprise

104

2.5.11. Information technology of information security

107

2.6. Main problems of use of information technology

109

3. Informatization as process of encapsulation of information technologies

110

3.1. Essence, purposes and principles of informatization

112

3.2. General classification and essence of problems of informatization

117

3.3. Social problems of informatization

122

4. Information society and information market

128

4.1. Information resources and sectors of the market of information services

130

4.2. Information society and informatization of science

132

Conclusion

137

Bibliographic unit

141

 

II. The table of contents of the printing manuscript
“History and philosophy of technics and informatics (computer science)”
(scientific monography)

 

Introduction

3

1. Emergence of science and main stages of its historical evolution

7

1.1. Prescience and science in the true sense word

7

1.2. School science and elite science

8

1.3. Prescience and the developed science

9

1.4. Culture of the antique policy and formation of the first forms of theoretical science

11

1.5. Universities and workshops

14

2. Equipment as philosophical problem

15

2.1. Concept of equipment: genesis and evolution

15

2.2. Images of equipment in philosophy of XXth century

18

2.3. Equipment and problem of human life

23

2.4. Social and spiritual parameters of equipment

25

3. Information science and information society in the context of a philosophical reflection

26

3.1. Formation of computer science as interdisciplinary direction in the second half of the XXth century

26

3.2. Computer science and general theory of systems

28

3.3. Theories of information society

30

3.4. Computer science as technical science

32

3.5. Efficiency of representation of knowledge

33

Conclusion

34

Bibliographic unit

35

 

III. The table of contents of the hand-written manuscripts
(lectures)

The table of contents of the lectures “Philosophy of science and technics”

Standard links

List of definitions

List of reductions and symbols

Introduction

1. Philosophy of science and technics, circle of its problems and antique image of science

1.1. Philosophy of science: circle of its problems

1.2. Problems of genesis of science

1.3. Philosophy of equipment: subject and structure

2. Development of european religious philosophy of science in the middle ages

2.1. Features of philosophy and science in the middle ages

2.2. Socio-cultural image of medieval science

2.3. Theoretical-gnoseological image of science

3. Philosophy of science of renaissance era and modern times

3.1. Features of philosophy of science of renaissance era

3.2. Genesis and main lines of science of modern times

3.3. Mechanistical empiricism

3.4. Mechanistical (mathematical) rationalism

3.5. Development of an image of science of the european philosophy
from the XVII
th century to the XVIIIth century.

4. Development of philosophy of science in the russian philosophical social thought

4.1. Problems of genesis of science in Russia

4.2. Philosophy of science of the russian middle ages and renaissance
from the XI
th century to the first half of the XVIIIth century

4.3. An image of science in the russian social thought of the second half of the XVIIIth century

4.4. An image of science in the russian philosophy of the first half of the XIXth century

4.5. An image of science in the russian philosophy
from the second half of the XIX
th century to the beginning of the XXth century

5. An image of science in the german classical philosophy

5.1. Features of philosophy of science in the german classical philosophy

5.2. I. Kant in philosophy of science

5.3. G.W.F. Hegel in philosophy of science

6. The western philosophy from the end of the XIXth century to the XXth century

6.1. Scientistical conceptions of science from the end of the XIXth century to the end of the XXth century

6.2. Antiscientistical philosophy of science from the end of the XIXth century to the end of the XXth century

7. Dialectic-materialistic conception of philosophy of science

7.1. Features of emergence and main schools of dialectic-materialistic philosophy of science

7.2. Theoretical-methodological bases and problems
of conceptions of philosophy of science of K. Marx and F. Engels

7.3. Development of the dialectic-materialistic conception of philosophy of science
at Russia in the XX
th century

8. Philosophical problems of scientific and technical reality

8.1. Forms of spiritual development of The World

8.2. Concept and structure of modern scientific reality

8.3. Innovations and traditions in science

8.4. Scientific revolutions

8.5. Eras (areas) of development of science

9. Ontological bases of science

9.1. Concept of the bases and philosophical bases of science

9.2. Concept of ontology and ontological bases of science

9.3. Concept of object and subject of science

9.4. Deterministical-ontological bases of scientific knowledge

10. Gnoseological bases of science

10.1. Concept and structure of the gnoseological bases of science

10.2. Ideals of scientific and technical knowledge

10.3. Ideals and norms of justification and structure of scientific knowledge

10.4. Knowledge problems in system of artificial intelligence (a computer epistemology)

11. Axiological bases of science

11.1. Formation and development of the axiological bases of science

11.2. Social and valuable determination of science

11.3. Axiological sphere of the scientist and value of science

12. Philosophical problems of modern science (philosophical problems of modern natural sciences)

12.1. Concept and structure of philosophical problems of science
(features of philosophical problems of natural sciences)

12.2. Main philosophical problems of natural sciences

12.3. Philosophical problems of philosophical cosmology

12.4. Physical, chemical and other philosophical problems of modern science

13. Philosophical problems of sciences about society

13.1. Axiological problems of sciences about society

13.2. Gnoseological problems of social-humanistical knowledge

13.3. Methodological problems of social-humanitarian knowledge

14. Philosophical problems of modern technical and information reality

14.1. Philosophical problems of technical reality

14.2. Philosophical problems of information reality

 

IV. The table of contents of the hand-written manuscripts
(manuscripts)

The table of contents of the manuscripts “History and philosophy of science and technics”

1. Introduction and problems of philosophy of science (download)

1.1. Axiological and methodological problems of science

1.2. Methodology of technical creativity

1.3. Historical natural-science pictures of The World

2. Social problems of genesis of philosophy of science in Russia (download)

2.1. General principles of emergence of the russian science and philosophy of science

2.2. Purely russian principles in development of science

2.3. Difference of the western thought and the russian thought in science and philosophy of science

2.4. Main lines of the russian philosophical thought

3. Philosophical problems of science (download)

3.1. Reasons of keen interest in science

3.2. Emergence of knowledge about science

3.3. Main philosophical problems of science:
intrinsic approach, substantial approach and science study approach

4. The history of philosophy of science (download)

4.1. Basic concepts and definitions of history of philosophy of science

4.2. The points of view on history of philosophy of science: positivism, dialectic materialism and logic

4.3. Subject and main problems of history of philosophy of science

4.4. History of philosophy of science areas:
classical science, nonclassical science, neo-nonclassical science, post-neo-nonclassical science

4.5. Formational approach of history of philosophy of science: antiquity, middle ages, modern times,
Europe from the XVII
th century to the XVIIIth century and an image of science
in the german classical philosophy

4.6. Development of the complete philosophical conception of science

4.7. Solution of a task on a philosophy of science method

5. Conceptions of genesis of science (download)

5.1. General approaches of historical-scientific researches

5.2. Main models of historical reconstructions of science

5.3. Main models of history of philosophy of science: cumulative model and model of scientific revolutions

6. Emergence of two opposite directions into philosophy of science (download)

6.1. Internalizm (A. Koyre and R. Hall)

6.2. Eksternalizm (R.K. Merton and A. Krombi)

6.3. Theory of scientific revolutions (T.S. Kuhn)

6.4. Theory case study

6.5. Conceptions of modeling (A.S. Rozenblyum, N. Winer, T.V. Bykov)

6.6. System theory

6.7. Evolutionary theory

6.8. Information theory

6.9. Socio-cultural theory

6.10. Synergetical theory (H. Haken)

7. Conceptions of development of antique science (download)

7.1. Conception of interrelation of formation of science and philosophy

7.2. Positivistical conception (I.A.M.F.X. Comte)

7.3. Budding of science (B.A.W. Russell)

7.4. Gnoseogennical and sociogennical conceptions (A.A. Bogdanov)

7.5. Mifogennical conception (G.V.F. Hegel and A.F. Losev)

7.6. Conception of denial: the antique science wasn't

7.7. Dialectic conception

7.8. The science is connected with emergence of a number of factors

7.9. Main stages of development of antique science

7.10. Historical image of science

8. The main stages of development and line of antique science (download)

8.1. Fundamental ideas and problems

8.2. A periodization on change of object and tasks of philosophy of science:
the physio-philosophical (cosmological) period
(from the VI
th century b.c. to the middle of the Vth century b.c.)
(
miletsky school, eleatsky school, pythagorean school and atomic school),
the anthropological period (from the second half of the V
th century b.c. to the end of the Vth century b.c.)
(
sophistical school and sokratsky school),
the systematic period (from the V
th century to the IVth century b.c.)
(
platonsky school and aristotelsky school),
the elliichesky period (from the III
rd century b.c. to the Ist century b.c.)
(
period of gains of A. Macedon, epikuriysky school, stoitsistichesky school, skeptitsistsky school)
and the religious period (from the I
st century ad to the VIth century ad)
(neo-platonistsky school and school of christian thought of origin of science)

8.3. Main lines of ancient philosophy of science

9. Christian rationalistic image of science (download)

9.1. Main lines of medieval science

9.2. Historical conditions of formation of medieval philosophy of science

9.3. Characteristic features of medieval philosophy of science

10. Socio-cultural image of science of the middle ages
and a theoretical-gnoseological image of science of the middle ages
(download)

10.1. Socio-cultural image of science

10.2. Theoretical-gnoseological image of science

10.3. Features of religious rationalism

11. Religious rationalism and a religious irrationalism (download)

11.1. Features of irrationalism

11.2. Features of religious rationalism

11.3. Features of religious scepticism

11.4. Types of religious scepticism

11.5. Features of humanity

12. Religious skepticism (download)

12.1. Orthodox religious scepticism

12.2. Heterodox religious scepticism

12.3. Problem of existence of God

12.4. Features of interrelation from religious scepticism and religious humanity

13. Genesis and the main lines of science of modern times (download)

13.1. Structure of scientific reality

13.2. Main lines of science and philosophy of science of modern times

14. The main forms of transfer of traditions in science:
school of sciences, scientific college, scientific discipline, scientific direction,
area of research and the scientific movement
(download)

14.1. Features of the european philosophy from the XVIIth century to the XVIIIth century

14.2. The main tendencies in science of modern times

14.3. Images of science in philosophy of science of modern times

15. Mechanistical rationalism
(mathematical rationalism of R. Descartes and J. Kepler's laws)
(download)

15.1. Scientific work of R. Descartes “Rules for management of mind”

15.2. Scientific work of R. Descartes “Reasonings on a method for the good direction
and descriptions of truth in sciences”

15.3. Cognitive activity of the person a basis on three ideas (R. Descartes)

15.4. Basic concepts of God in cosmological part of the doctrine of R. Descartes

15.5. Three laws of mechanics as eternal laws of the nature (R. Descartes)

16. The mechanistical empiricism (F. Bacon) (download)

16.1. Scientific work of F. Bacon “About value and success of knowledge, divine and human”

16.2. Scientific work of F. Bacon “New Organon”

16.3. Scientific work of F. Bacon “About the advantage and enhancement of sciences”

16.4. Task of F. Bacon “great recovery of sciences”

16.5. Classification of knowledge (humanistical principle)

16.6. Informative (cognitive) abilities of the person: memory, imagination and reason

16.7. Associative abilities of the person:
history, poetry, literature and philosophy (theoretical sciences)

16.8. The points of view to the subject of research and the nature: God, nature and person

16.9. Natural philosophy (physio-philosophy) and natural philosophy (natural sciences)

16.10. Theory and practice: physics, metaphysics and abilities of the person of the different nature

16.11. Ideals of the person in philosophy: sort (tribe), cave, area, theater (theory)

16.12. Classification of ideals and sciences of the person:
natural ideals (sciences) and the acquired ideals (sciences)

16.13. The analysis of ways of knowledge and scientific knowledge:
a way on hands, a way on roles and a way of a bee

16.17. Scientific work of F. Bacon “New Organon”: person is servant and scientist of the nature

16.18. Method of scientific knowledge of F. Bacon

16.19. Stages of an inductive method (table of opening):
table of presence, table of a deviation, table of comparison and degrees and table of collecting fruits

16.20. Main restrictions of reason of the person (F. Bacon)

17. Critical rationalism of I. Kant (“Criticism of pure reason”) (download)

17.1. Features of the german classical philosophy of science

17.2. A science role in development of world culture

17.3. System approach to the analysis of science: ontology, gnoseology, anthropology, logic and axiology

17.4. The dialectic conception of science on the basis of a metaphysical method in science

17.5. The historical analysis of science

17.6. Main regularities of development of human knowledge

17.7. The main ethical-humanistical problems in science

17.8. Contradictions and difficulties on the way of an embodiment of science to rationalism

17.9. Communication of philosophy of science and philosophy of equipment

17.10. The ancestor (foundator) of the system analysis in science (I. Kant)

17.11. Problems of the conception of I. Kant

17.12. Components of the theory of knowledge of I. Kant:
theory of sensory perception and theory of aprioristic forms of rational knowledge

17.13. Scientific work of I. Kant “Criticism of pure reason”

17.14. Scientific work of I. Kant “Criticism of practical reason” (“Criticism of ability of judgment”)

17.15. Structure of sensory perception in science: sensuality (esthetics) and mind

17.16. Types of scientific contemplation (I. Kant): empirical contemplation and contemplation of reason

17.17. Communication of theoretical contemplation and empirical contemplation as psychological process

17.18. Theory of aprioristic forms of rational knowledge as transcendental analytics

17.19. Kinds of sciences (I. Kant):
sciences about laws of sensuality as an esthetics and sciences about mind as psychology

17.20. Logic as science (I. Kant): formal logic and transcendental logic

17.21. Transcendental dialectics (I. Kant) as dialectics of history of philosophy of science:
reason and structure of reason

17.22. Types of conclusions (I. Kant):
categorical conclusion (psychological soul), hypothetical conclusion (cosmological soul)
and dividing conclusion (theological soul)

17.23. The science is always confirmed by experience
and informative (cognitive) abilities of the person (I. Kant):
reason as ability to conclusions, mind as ability to concepts and judgments
and sensuality as ability to feelings

17.24. Communication between unique experience and transcendental mind (I. Kant)

18. Logical rationalism of G.V.F. Hegel (“Phenomenology of spirit”) (download)

18.1. Features of development of science in human society

18.2. The analysis of knowledge depending on historical and socio-cultural conditions
from positions of objective idealism

18.3. Scientific work of G.V.F. Hegel “Phenomenology of spirit”

18.4. The analysis of science from the common world-outlooks and the principle of historicism

18.5. Two scientific approaches (G.V.F. Hegel):
the analysis from positions of leadership and the analysis from positions of world and public knowledge

18.6. Manifestations of spirit as consciousness, reason and thinking
at various stages of empirical consciousness and absolute spirit

18.7. Science about spirit (G.V.F. Hegel “Phenomenology of spirit”):
life definition, plurality of life and absoluteness of knowledge

18.8. Historical steps of development of knowledge:
subject knowledge, consciousness and stage of the absolute subject of knowledge

18.9. Plans of the solution of scientific problems in “Phenomenology of spirit” (G.V.F. Hegel):
the plan of the movement of spirit in line with independent comprehension through all historical changes
of The World around and the plan relating to a certain historical individual

18.10. Prevalence of objective and ideological approach

18.11. Scheme of development of knowledge (way of spirit) and its manifestation:
stages and moduses of phenomenology of spirit

18.12. Figure of a way: stages of passing of knowledge

18.13. Consciousness (sensuality, perception and mind) and consciousness
(independence and dependence of consciousness as domination and slavery,
and also free consciousness as stoicism, scepticism and unfortunate consciousness)

18.14. Reason as unity of life and thinking, synthesis and overcoming of unfortunate consciousness:
observation reason, the operating reason and spirit as reason in operation

18.15. A ratio of spirit and reason in the free people

18.16. Religion as stage of development of understanding of spirit:
east philosophy, greek philosophy and christian religion

18.17. Absolute knowledge as a priority of the logical point of view over the historical point of view

18.18. Initial measure of object, essence, phenomenon, reality and subject

18.19. Mind as source of empirical knowledge and reason as source of theoretical knowledge

18.20. Scientific concept as unity of essence and phenomenon

18.21. Concrete scientific concept to identically scientific object of research

18.22. Development of forms of knowledge as process of transition from abstract to the concrete

18.23. Scientific knowledge as logical reality

19. Functions of philosophy (philosophy and science) (download)

19.1. Concept of philosophy of science

19.2. Structural elements of philosophy of science: ontology as the doctrine about life,
gnoseology as the doctrine about knowledge, dialectics as the doctrine about development,
social philosophy as the doctrine about society,
logic as the doctrine about logical regularities and communications,
ethics as the doctrine about standards of behavior,
esthetics as the doctrine about manifestations of ethics in The World around,
history of philosophy as the doctrine about development of philosophy in a temporary continuum,
philosophical anthropology as the doctrine about life of the person in The World

19.3. Main functions of philosophy of science:
world-outlook, methodological, informative (cognitive) and social-communicative

19.4. Main stages of development of philosophy of science: world-outlook till the philosophical period,
ancient philosophy (cosmocentrizm as dialectician of E. Heraclitus,
atomistic materialism of A. Democritus and S. Epicurus, idealism of S. Pythagoras
and objective idealism of A. Plato and S. Aristotle),
philosophy of the middle ages (medieval patristika, scholasticism,
medieval arab and east peripatetizm of A.Y.Y. ibn I.-Ṣ. al-Kindī,
A. bin M. bin Ḥ.A.A.A. al-Shaybānī and A. al-Ḥ.A. ibn al-Ḥ. ibn A. al-Masudi),
philosophy of renaissance (renaissance) (anthropocentrism),
philosophy of modern times (philosophy of the french materialism),
german philosophy (marxism), philosophy of the XIX
th century,
irrationalism philosophy (philosophy of life of A. Bergson, existentialism of M. Heidegger and freydizm)
and modern philosophy (the dialectic-materialistic approach of V.I. Ulyanov (Lenin)
and development of dialectic-materialistic approach in politics and economics of L.I. Brezhnev)

19.5. Science as supervision, classification, description, pilot studies
and theoretical descriptions of the natural phenomena

19.6. Science and philosophy as specific forms of public consciousness

19.7. The philosophy carries out functions of methodology of knowledge
and world-outlook interpretation of results of science

19.8. Philosophy as aspiration to creation of knowledge in the form of the theory
taking into account logical substantiality of conclusions

19.9. Philosophy as need of the person for complete understanding of The World

19.10. Philosophy as justification of regularities of functioning of sciences

19.11. Ratios of consciousness and matter, spirit and nature, thinking and life

20. The element, structure and system (download)

20.1. Concept of an element in philosophy of science

20.2. An element as set of atoms with an identical charge

20.3. Natural and artificial chemical elements

20.4. Theory of chemical elements and elementary particles

20.5. Influence of natural sciences and research of chemical elements and elementary particles
on philosophy of science and social science

20.6. A role of an element and system in economy, sociology, law, political science and cultural science

20.7. System as essence (K.L. von Bertalanfi, D.I. Mendeleyev, A.A. Bogdanov,
P.K. Anokhin, V.G. Afanasyev, V.M. Glushkov, V.I. Ulyanov (Lenin) and L.I. Brezhnev):
consists of elements, parts, components and connections, each element carries out
a certain function and occurrence of each element is or isn't casual

20.8. The system is integrally connected with other similar substances on a scale of ranks,
with systems of other level, subsystems with communications and the relations between them

20.9. The system has a certain structure and the external and internal environment of functioning

20.10. Whole system as internal and external unity of the contents and form

20.11. Characteristics of system aren't invariable and absolute in the real value

20.12. The typology and topology of systems is under construction on the different bases

20.13. Systems of the inanimate (inorganic) nature: geological, physical and chemical

20.14. Systems of wildlife: plants, animals and person

20.15. Society as special type of material systems

20.16. Ideal systems: spirituality and products of cogitative activity:
mythology, philosophy, values of culture and “Internet”

20. 17. Types of systems: opened and closed, stable (steady) and unstable (unsteady),
static and dynamic in time

20.18. Levels of systems by their sizes and scales:
the universe as system of systems, a meta-galaxy as part of the universe from billions of galaxies,
galactic systems, mega-systems, macro-systems and micro-systems

20.19. Structure of public system: economic subsystem, social subsystem,
political subsystem, administrative subsystem, cybernetic subsystem,
information subsystem and other subsystems

20.20. Social system as unity of society and nature

20.21. Structure (structure, arrangement and order) as certain set of stable relations of object

20.22. Communication of complexity of structure and variety of functions of system

20.23. Ontological nature of categories element, structure and system

20.24. Synergetical methods of research of systems (H. Haken)

20.25. Scientific work of H. Haken “Synergetrics”

20.26. Scientific researches of the belgian physicist of the russian origin I.R. Prigozhin

20.27. Scientific researches of the russian scientists
(A.A. Andronov, A.A. Witt, S.E. Khaykin, A.P. Rudenko, Y.L. Klimentovich,
S.P. Kurdyumov, A.A. Samarsky, I.A. Akchurin, N.N. Moiseyev, V.S. Egorov and others)

20.28. Synergetrics and self-organization

20.29. Scientific problems of synergetrics (physics of nucleus and atomic nucleus):
thermodynamics of nonequilibrium processes, theory of casual processes
and theory of nonlinear fluctuations

20.30. Synergetrics as young interdisciplinary science:
bifurcation, hyper-cycle, dissipative structures, coherence, The World, nonlinearity,
disbalance, self-organization, openness, self-sufficiency, consciousness of the nature,
fluctuation, chaos, entropy, reversibility, arrows of time and other

20.31. Methodological fundamentals of synergetics

21. Concept of a method and methodology (download)

21.1. Method as way of scientific knowledge

21.2. Methodology as system of methods, ways, receptions and operations
in a certain field of activity and as the doctrine (theory) about system of methods

21.3. Methodology as science about structure and development of scientific knowledge,
means and methods of scientific research, ways of justification of scientific results,
mechanisms and forms of realization of scientific knowledge in practice

21.4. Problems of a method and methodology in philosophy and science

21.5. Ratio of concepts method, discipline, theory, subject of research,
object of research and object of research

21.6. Variety of human activities and variety of methods of research

21.7. Methods of spiritual, ideal, practical and material activities

21.8. Multilevel conception of methodological knowledge:
philosophical methods (dialectics, metaphysics, analytics,
intuition, phenomenology and hermeneutics),
general scientific methods (information processing, modeling,
isomorphism, structuring and optimality),
methods of private sciences (ways and principles of knowledge,
research receptions and procedures in a certain branch of science),
disciplinary methods (system of receptions in a certain discipline
from a branch of science or on a joint of sciences)
and methods of interdisciplinary research (set of the synthetic
and integrative ways on a joint of different sciences)

21.9. Features of philosophical methods: antique dialectics (E. Heraclitus and E. Zenon),
german idealistic dialectics (I. Kant, G.V.F. Hegel, I.G. Fichte and F.W.J. von Schelling)
and materialistic dialectics (K. Marx, F. Engels, V.I. Ulyanov (Lenin) and L.I. Brezhnev),
metaphysics, analytics, intuition, phenomenology and hermeneutics

21.10. Features of general-scientific methods:
information processing, modeling, isomorphism, structuring and optimality

21.11. Features of methods of private-sciences: ways and principles of knowledge,
research receptions and procedures in a certain branch of science

21.12. Features of disciplinary methods:
system of receptions in a certain discipline from a branch of science or on a joint of sciences

21.13. Features of methods of interdisciplinary research:
set of synthetic and integrative ways on a joint of different sciences

22. A method of scientific knowledge (download)

22.1. Concept of a method of scientific knowledge

22.2. Classification of methods of scientific knowledge:
knowledge (methods of empirical research,
empirical-theoretical methods and methods of theoretical researches)
and coverage (general methods, general scientific methods,
private(specifically)-scientific methods and interdisciplinary methods)

22.3. Empirical (sensual) methods of scientific researches:
supervision, description, measurement, experiment and comparison

22.4. Theoretical (rational) methods of scientific researches:
formalization, axiomatization, hypothetical method and deductive method

23. The general scientific methods (download)

23.1. Concept of the general scientific methods

23.2. Classification (dichotomizing) general scientific methods:
metaphysics and dialectics, analysis and synthesis, induction and deduction,
generalization and abstraction, analogy and modeling, historicism and logic

23.3. Concept of abstractioning

23.4. Classification of abstractions: the isolating abstraction,
abstraction of an identification, abstraction of a constructivisation,
abstraction of actual infinity and abstraction of potential feasibility

23.5. Concept of the analysis and synthesis

23.6. Classification of the analysis and synthesis: direct (empirical),
returnable (theoretical) and structural-genetic

23.7. Concept of deduction and induction

23.8. Classification of deduction and induction: deductive conclusion,
inductive conclusion (incomplete induction and full induction),
empirical induction and deduction, popular induction and deduction
and scientific induction and deduction

23.9. Concept of model and modeling

23.10. Classification of models:
on purpose  of use in the course of knowledge (heuristic models and didactic models),
on a way of reproduction of information (sign models and material-technical models),
on extent of participation of the person in creation of models (natural models and artificial models)

23.11. Structure of modeling as scientific research on the basis of models: problem definition,
creation or choice of models, research of model and transfer of knowledge from model on the original

23.12. Main functions of models: model as information source
and model as means of fixing (preservation) of knowledge

23.13. Concept of a historical scientific method (historicism) and logical scientific method (logic)

23.14. Communication between a historical scientific method (historicism)
and logical scientific method (logic)

24. Object of research and informative (cognitive) image: the material basis and subjective basis (download)

24.1. Concept of object of scientific research (phenomenon),
subject of scientific research (informative (cognitive) image)
and subject of scientific research (scientist)

24.2. Concept of The material World and matter (abstraction) of objective reality,
information (objective contents)
and activities of the learning subject (the subject of research)

24.3. Structure of actual object of scientific research:
object of research (concrete) and subject of research (informative (cognitive) image)

24.4. Characteristics of a subjective image of The objective World

24.5. Concept of essence (thing) and phenomenon

24.6. Essence (thing) as unity of stability

24.7. Phenomenon as unity of variability

24.8. Structure of real object of scientific research: essence (thing) and phenomenon

24.9. Object of scientific research as synthesis of difficult natural and social substances
and as The whole World (Mankind) during any historical era

24.10. Concept of material unity of The World

24.11. Structure of material unity of The World:
general properties of a matter (generality, objectivity, survivability and inexhaustibility),
way of existence (movement and development)
and forms of existence of a matter and substance (space and time)

25. Activity of consciousness and the practician as the engine and criterion of truth (download)

25.1. Concept of activity of consciousness

25.2. Structure of activity of consciousness:
internal activity of consciousness and external activity of consciousness

25.3. Structure of internal activity of consciousness: generators of activity of consciousness
(first level as requirements, interests, purposes, norms, belief, ideals and others)
and regulators of activity of consciousness
(second level as knowledge and assessment of the previous factors
and the third level as the strong-willed processes directed on action)

25.4. Structure of external activity of consciousness: practice as engine and criterion of truth

25.5. Forms of manifestation of activity of consciousness:
internal tension of consciousness (power of thought, feelings and will)
and external manifestation of consciousness (activity in subject domain or the problem sphere)

26. Classification of objects of scientific research:
the object of scientific research is primary concerning the subject of scientific research
(download)

26.1. Classification of objects of scientific research
on a ratio of object of scientific research and knowledge of the subject of scientific research:
primary objects of scientific research as objects of the first sort
and secondary objects of scientific research as objects of the second sort

26.2. Classification of objects of scientific research
in relation to material activity of the subject of scientific research:
the objects of scientific research existing to out of and irrespective of this activity
and the objects of scientific research which aren't existing to it
but existing out of and irrespective of it

27. Concept about material object of scientific research
becomes substantial only if its attributes are specified
(download)

27.1. Concept of attributes of object of scientific research

27.2. Interrelation of attributes and substances of object of scientific research

27.3. Concept of material object of scientific research

28. Idea about structure of a matter (substance):
exact quantitative and qualitative characteristic of objects of scientific research
is defined by certain sciences
(download)

28.1. Levels of the internal system organization of material object of scientific research:
first level (particles, antiparticles, atomic nucleuses, atoms, molecules and plasma),
second level (gaseous, liquid and strong substances),
third level (planets, geo-sphere and stars) and fourth level (galaxy and meta-galaxy)

28.2. First level of the internal system organization of material object of scientific research:
particles and antiparticles are connected with proteinaceous bodies and nucleinic acids,
atomic nucleuses, atoms and molecules are connected with cages and micro-organisms
as viruses, and plasma is connected by microbes and bacteria with mono-celled and multi-cellular
plants and animals

28.3. Second level of the internal system organization of material object of scientific research:
gaseous substances are connected with organic types, biocenoses and the bio-sphere,
liquid substances are connected with people, human society and socio-sphere and strong substances
are connected with a techno-sphere and real means of transformation of the nature and society

28.4. Third level of the internal system organization of material object of scientific research:
planets and geo-sphere are connected with the neo-sphere and the secondary nature created by society
and stars are connected with a micro-cosm as micro-bodies, macro-cosm as macro-bodies
and The mega-World as mega-bodies

28.5. Fourth level of the internal system organization
material object of scientific research:
the galaxy and meta-galaxy are connected with systems of mega-bodies,
biological systems and social systems

29. Idea of structure of a matter (substance):
at each level of structure of a matter there are special manifestations
of the existential relations with different types of the movement
(download)

29.1. Classification of levels of structure of a matter,
existential relations and types of the movement:
The micro-World (micro-cosm)
is described by laws of quantum mechanics in micro-space and micro-time,
The macro-World (macro-cosm)
is described by laws of classical mechanics in macro-space and macro-time
and The mega-World
is described by laws of the theory of relativity in mega-space and mega-time

29.2. Main types of material systems: inorganic, organic and social

29.3. Concept of development of material systems: unipolar, regressive and progressive

30. The historical analysis of the object and the historical synthesis of the object (download)

30.1. The principle of development demands unity of the historical analysis and historical synthesis

30.2. The historical analysis of the object of scientific research as consecutive transition
from a modern situation of development to earlier stages up to identification
of the elementary (initial) form from which the object historically developed

30.3. The historical synthesis of the object of scientific research as transition
from simpler conditions of the developing object to more difficult

31. Subject of science and process of knowledge:
the idealized object and idealization of real object
(download)

31.1. Set of material objects of scientific research and their difficult and multilevel communications

31.2. Concept of a subject of scientific research

31.3. Structure of process of scientific knowledge:
idealized object, process of creation of idealized object
and idealization of real object

31.4. Ways of idealization of object of scientific research:
abstraction from one properties of real objects,
keeping at the same time other properties and entering object,
in which are inherent only the remained properties (mechanic I. Newton)

31.5. Ways of idealization of object of scientific research:
abstraction from some relations of the studied objects from each other (ideal gas)

31.6. Ways of idealization of object of scientific research:
attributing to real objects of the properties which are absent at them
in some limit value (absolutely black body and ideal mirror)

31.7. Ways of idealization of object of scientific research:
any real subject can become idealized object,
which is thought in nonexistent ideal conditions (inertia)

31.8. Ways of idealization of object of scientific research:
various combinations of known ways of idealization of objects

32. The reasons of idealization of object and subject of research (download)

32.1. Pronounced activity of human knowledge of reality

32.2. Infinite complexity, variability, fluidity
and an inclusiveness of real objects in universal system of interrelations

32.3. The scientist can't comprehensively capture and understand at once
any real subject from positions of a certain science

33. The philosophy of equipment of dialectic-materialistic philosophy (download)

33.1. Historical forms and representatives of materialism:
naive (contemplate) (M. Thales, E. Heraclitus, A. Democritus and S. Epicurus), metaphysical
(F. Bacon, B. Spinoza, J. Locke, P.-H. T. Golbakh,
M.V. Lomonosov. L.A. von Feuerbach and A.I. Herzen)
and dialectic (K. Marx, F. Engels, P.J. Dietzgen, F. Mehring,
G.V. Plekhanov, V.I. Ulyanov (Lenin) and L.I. Brezhnev)

34. The basic dialectic principles, laws and categories (download)

34.1. Basic dialectic principles:
principle of general communication and principle of the general movement and development

34.2. Basic dialectic laws:
law of unity and conflict of opposites, law of mutual transition of the quantitative
and high-quality changes and law of denial of denial

34.3. Main dialectic categories:
cause and effect, need and accident, opportunity and reality,
contents and form, essence and phenomenon separate and the general,
separate and special and separate and uniform

35. Gnoseological rectors (bases) of materialism (download)

35.1. In the course of scientific knowledge there is a need and opportunity
of materialistic outlook

35.2. Concept of materialistic outlook:
objectivity of consideration of any things and phenomena,
versatility of consideration of the studied subject, flexibility and mobility of concepts
and continuous communication of all scientific representations (theories, hypotheses, laws and concepts),
all parties of scientific knowledge with concept of a matter, nature,
providing their use as relative

36. Genesis of dialectic-materialistic philosophy of science and technics:
theoretical basis (sources),
transition to nonclassical dialectic-materialistic philosophy (K. Marx and F. Engels),
natural-science opening and social-economic prerequisites
(download)

36.1. Theoretical basis (sources) of dialectic-materialistic philosophy of science and technics:
german classical philosophy (G.V.F. Hegel and L.A. von Feuerbach),
classical english political economy (A. Smith and D. Ricardo)
and critical utopian socialism of the XIX
th century. (C.H. de R. comte de Saint-Simon and F.M.C. Fourier)

36.2. Natural-science opening of dialectic-materialistic philosophy of science and technics:
cellular theory (T. Schwann and M.J. Schleiden),
theory of an origin and development of species of plants and animals (C.R. Darwin)
and law of conservation and transformation of energy (J.R. von Mayer and H.L.F. von Helmholtz)

36.3. Social-economic prerequisites
dialectic-materialistic philosophy of science and technics:
the introduction of a social production in an industrial stage of development,
more close connection of science and production, manifestation of social-class dissociation,
creation of new philosophical-methodological and world-outlook
fundamentals of philosophy of science
and the introduction of science in the third stage of the development
(descriptive, ordering and explanatory)

36.4. Transition to nonclassical dialectic-materialistic philosophy of science and technics
(K. Marx, F. Engels, V.I. Ulyanov (Lenin) and L.I. Brezhnev)

37. The studied matter (as polysyllabic and multicoherent essence)
and forms of its movement become complicated:
a dialectic view of the events and a metaphysical view of the events
(download)

37.1. Dialectic view of the events:
the lowest forms enter to interaction with the highest,
but the highest form isn't the simple sum of the lowest, recognition of the development going on a spiral
(repetition passed, but at higher level),
internal contradictions as development source
and recognition of mutual transition of quantitative and high-quality changes

37.2. The metaphysical view of the events doesn't work any more:
the highest forms are reduced to the lowest, when studying the highest forms of the movement
actions of the lowest aren't properly considered,
development as an incrementation or a decrementation with repetition,
insufficient attention to a movement source (driving force),
misunderstanding of a general relationship of the phenomena in The World
and an inattention to historical development (transition)

37.3. Features of the accounting of mutual influence and forecasting of development of a matter
(problem of combinatory explosion)

37.4. Features of neuro-cybernetic and synergetic approach

38. The scientific term “dialectic materialism” is entered by G.V. Plekhanov
in 1831 y. K. Marx and F. Engels used terms
“new materialism” and “modern materialism”
(download)

38.1. Structure of dialectic-materialistic philosophy of science and technics:
theory of development and general communication, dialectic logic, theory and method of knowledge,
subjective dialectics, objective dialectics and historical and logical approaches

38.2. Dialectic-materialistic philosophy of science and technics
as theory of development and theory of general communication:
general communication and development and laws of the relations in objective reality

38.3. Dialectic-materialistic philosophy of science and technics as dialectic logic:
subjective dialectics (development of the nature and society and reflection of dialectic thinking)
and objective dialectics (science about general laws of development of the nature, society and thinking)

38.4. Dialectic-materialistic philosophy of science and technics as theory and method of knowledge:
laws and categories of dialectics as tool of knowledge and unity
and coincidence of dialectics, logic and theory of knowledge

38.5. Dialectic-materialistic philosophy of science and technics
as historical and logical approaches:
general method of knowledge and transformation (structural decomposition) of The World

39. Conceptual basis of society, public relations
and main functions of social system: in a broad sense and narrow sense
(download)

39.1. Concept of society in a broad sense:
as all set of historically developed forms of joint activity of people

39.2. Concept of society of narrow sense:
as historically caused and concrete type of social system
and certain form of the social relations

39.3. Conceptual bases of the public relations:
structural communications, functional communications and dynamic communications

39.4. Structural communications of the public relations:
social activity (production, political, moral,
legal and religious relations), social communities
(sort, tribe, nationality and nation) and social groups (classes, estates and castes)

39.5. Functional communications of the public relations:
preservation and reproduction of social system
and expansion and improvement (optimization) of social system

39.6. Dynamic communications of the public relations:
linear type of social dynamics, cyclic type of social dynamics
and helicoid type of social dynamics

39.7. Society as the difficult, ordered and self-governed integrity of the public relations,
which carrier is the person

39.8. Main functions of social system:
function of simple reproduction, function of adaptation and protection and function of improvement

39.9. The dialectic-materialistic philosophy of science and technics places particular emphasis
on the public relations in the sphere of production of goods

40. The public relations and stratification of society
on layers, groups and classes (class fight):
basis (material relations)
and the superstructure (the state and ideological relations)
(download)

40.1. The material relations as basis of the public relations:
set of material and economic human relations
in the course of a social production and the movement of a public product
from production before consumption (relations of production)

40.2. The state and ideological relations as superstructure of the public relations:
set of the regulating relations in the sphere of the law, policy, economy, science and culture

40.3. Society is stratified and structurally differentiated
between various layers and groups of the population

40.4. Elements of stratification and structural differentiation of society:
slavery (division of people on beyond all bounds free and slaves as people things),
castes (the isolated public groups which members are connected by an origin
or a legal status accessory to which is hereditary),
estates (social groups which status is fixed by custom, religion,
law or belonging to this or that class)
and classes (groups of people from which one can appropriate work another,
thanks to distinction of their place in a certain way of public economy)

40.5. Features of the conflict of interests between classes in the sphere of the consumer benefits:
in a place in historically certain system of a social production,
on a role in public organization of work, on the relation of people to means of production
and by the size (share) of a public product

40.6. Prerequisites of emergence of classes: public division of labor,
development of productive forces, emergence of a private property
and emergence of an additional product

40.7. Forms of class fight: economic, political and ideological

41. Development of society: social and ethnic approach, formational approach,
an organizational number of economy and civilization approach
(download)

41.1. Social and ethical number of the public relations: sort, tribe, nationality and nation

41.2. Formational number of the public relations:
primitive society, slaveholding society, feudal society,
capitalist society and socialist society (ideal society)

41.3. Organizational number of economy: subsistence economy, commodity economy and planned economy

41.4. Civilization number of the public relations:
society before formation of a civilization (wild society and barbarous society), civilized society
(landowners' society, industrial society and information society)

42. The material conditionality of life of society:
natural conditions and production of goods
(a way of production as the organization of means of production)
(download)

42.1. The natural conditions of society: (natural) environment and population

42.2. Production of goods of society: productive forces
(labor, science and technology and way of production as organization of means of production)
and productive relations (economic situation of classes and social groups,
relations of property, relation of an exchange, distribution and consumption
and production-technological relations)

42.3. Way of production as organization of means of production:
means of labor (instruments of production and working conditions)
and the objects of the labor (which passed preprocessing and didn't pass preprocessing)

43. Socio-economic structure, interrelation of the production technology
and like a civilization (K. Marx) and types of property
(download)

43.1. Type of a socio-economic structure:
scientific work of K. Marx of “Critic of political economy”
(asian, antique, feudal, bourgeois and modern),
scientific work of K. Marx “A letter sketch to V. Zasulich”
(pre-class society, class society and communistic classless society)
and scientific work of I.V. Dzhugashvili (Stalin)
“Short course of history of the All-Russian communistic party (of bolsheviks)”
(primitive-communal society, slaveholding society, feudal society,
capitalist society and communistic society)

43.2. Interrelation of the production technology and type of a civilization (K. Marx):
intensive technology and active type of a civilization
(antique form of ownership and private property),
extensive technology and contemplate type of a civilization
(asian form of ownership and earth, irrigational system, means and conditions
are property of a community and everyone temporarily uses communal property)
both the mixed technology and the mixed civilization type (the german form of ownership,
the part of property belongs to each family and the part is a community)

44. Concept of equipment and stages of development of a socio-economic structure of society (download)

44.1. In development of equipment allocate various stages
of developments of a socio-economic structure of society:
emergence and distribution of simple instruments of labor in conditions
primitive-communal way of production (from 700-600 thousand y. b.c to the IV
th-IIIrd century b.c.),
development and distribution of difficult instruments of labor and emergence
of separate branches of knowledge
in the conditions of a slaveholding way of production
(from the IV
th-IIIrd thousand y. b.c. to the IVth-Vth century ad),
distribution of the difficult instruments of labor put in action by forces of nature
and accumulation of natural-science knowledge
in the conditions of a feudal way of production (from the VII
th-Xth century to the XIVth-XVth century),
emergence of prerequisites for creation of machine equipment and formation of natural sciences
as sciences in the conditions of manufactory production
(from the end of the XVIII
th century to the beginning of the XIXth century),
creation and distribution of working cars on the basis of the steam engine and education
classical natural sciences in the period of a victory and the statement capitalist
machine manufacturing
(from the end of the XVIII
th century to the beginning of the 70th y. of XIXth century),
development of system of cars on the basis of the electric drive and the latest revolution in natural sciences
in the conditions of the begun decline of capitalism (from the 70
th y. of the XIXth century to 1917 y.),
preparation and implementation of transition to automatic systems of cars
and a unification of science and production (from 1917 y. to the 50
th y. of the XXth century)
and modern scientific and technical revolution (present)

45. Stages of development of technical knowledge (download)

45.1. Prescientific stage of development of technical knowledge
(from a primitive-communal system to renaissance):
technical knowledge existed as empirical descriptions of subject domains
practicians of the subject, means of its work and ways of their application

45.2. The second stage of development of technical knowledge
(from the second half of the XV
th century to the 70th y. of the XIXth century):
origin of technical science and emergence of equipment by car

45.3. The third (classical) stage of development of technical knowledge
(from the 70
th y. of the XIXth century to the middle of the XXth century):
technical science as the created and developed areas of scientific knowledge with the subject,
the means and by methods, areas of research and close interrelation
natural and technical science

45.4. The fourth stage of development of the complex automated production (present):
the period of the complex automated production and formation of system
“science, equipment and production”

46. The material types of systems and methods of thinking (download)

46.1. The material objects of research possess an internal form and the system organization:
The mega-World, The macro-World (macro-cosm) and The micro-World (micro-cosm)

46.2. Classification of material systems:
inorganic systems, organic systems and social systems

46.3. Classification of methods of scientific thinking:
metaphysical thinking (static) and dialectic thinking (dynamic)

46.4. Development as irreversible high-quality change:
unidirectional development, regressive development and progressive development

47. The conception of interdisciplinarity of science and technics (download)

47.1. Common problems of an interdisciplinarity of science

47.2. Objective prerequisites of interdisciplinarity of science

47.3. Scientific approaches to the analysis of interdisciplinarity of science: methodical approaches
(historical approach, historical-epoch(ave)-making approach and historical-psychological approach)
and modern approaches (internalistical approach and eksternalistical approach)

48. Leadership problems in science, genesis of a distsiplinarity and interdisciplinarity of science (download)

48.1. Financing problems in science

48.2. Gnoseological problems

48.3. Scientific work of N.N. Polikarpov “History of science and technics”

48.4. Synergetic bases of interdisciplinarity in science (G. Haken)

49. Ways of interpretation of concept of interdisciplinarity of science (download)

49.1. Concept and the conception of an interdisciplinarity of science

49.2. Organizational structure of science is independent of a level of development and differentiation

49.3. Formation of skills of joint scientific work

49.4. The characteristic of researches on a first line of science

49.5. Subjective and objective process of scientific creativity

49.6. Interdisciplinarity and methodical purposes of science

49.7. Integration in science

49.8. Signs of crushing of sciences and scientific directions

50. Concept of scientific discipline, interdisciplinarity levels
and historical forms of interrelation of sciences
(download)

50.1. Scientific discipline as collaboration form

50.2. Scientific discipline as form of carrying out scientific researches

50.3. Scientific discipline as form of the organization and knowledge acquisition (data mining)

50.4. Scientific discipline as form of cooperation of the scientific from the different countries of The World

50.5. Scientific discipline as form of preparation of scientific personnel

50.6. Scientific discipline as science institutionalizing form

50.7. Classification of levels of interdisciplinarity of science:
experimental approach, social-theoretical approach,
special approach and philosophical approach

50.8. Historical forms of interrelation of sciences: emergence of a kernel (cementization) of science,
interlacing of sciences, superposition of sciences and combination (complexivity) of sciences

50.9. An active role of science in public life

51. Types of an interdisciplinarity of science (download)

51.1. Classification of types of interdisciplinarity in science:
collision of interests in scientific paradigms
, research practice,
unity of applied and fundamental (basic) researches, regional sciences,
exact interpretation and new scientific directions (micro-scientific revolutions),
transfer of methods between sciences, fixity of interdisciplinary knowledge (thesaurus)
and emergence of other types of scientific activity (consultation)

51.2. Discussion of process of interdisciplinarity of science

52. Aspects of interdisciplinarity (download)

52.1. Classification of levels of research of interdisciplinarity of science:
ontologic level, gnoseological level, cognitive level,
political level, social level, communicative level,
methodological level, linguistic level and organizational level

53. Genesis of object and subject of scientific knowledge (download)

53.1. Emergence of object of scientific research

53.2. Emergence of a subject of scientific research

53.2. Emergence of the subject of scientific research

54. Concept of an object and a subject of science (download)

54.1. Scientific sense of the term object (subject) of scientific research

54.2. Scientific sense of the term subject of scientific research

54.3. Scientific sense of attributes of object (subject) of scientific research

54.4. Scientific sense of concept idealization of object (subject) of scientific research

54.5. Scientific sense of concept of abstraction of object (subject) of scientific research

55. General models of history of science: classical models and nonclassical models (download)

55.1. Concept and main objectives of history of philosophy of science and technics

55.2. The most general approaches and programs of historical-scientific researches:
chronological systematization of achievements in this or that area of science,
description of the mechanism of progressive development of scientific ideas and problems,
analysis of a human element of scientific activity and problem of reconstruction of last knowledge
and reconstruction of various historical stages of development of scientific thought

55.3. Theories and conceptions of history of philosophy of science and technics:
science history as cumulative and progressive process,
science history as development through scientific revolutions,
science history as set of private situations (case study
)
and science history as set of models

55.4. Models of development of history of philosophy of science and technics:
classical models of history of science and nonclassical models of history of science

55.5. Classical cumulativical model of historical development of science:
positivism (I.A.M.F.X. Comte), late positivism (E.W.J.W. Makh and P.M.M. Duhem)
and positive evolutionary positivism (H. Spencer)

55.6. Classical model of scientific revolutions:
metaphysical bases of modern classical science
and theory of fundamental scientific revolutions (R.G. Barthes and A. Koyre):
internalizm and eksternalizm

55.7. Classical theory of scientific revolutions (T.S. Kuhn)

55.8. Classical theory of scientific revolutions (K.R. Popper)

55.9. Scientific work of P.K. Feyerabend “Against metologichesky coercion”

55.10. Scientific work of M. Polani “Personal knowledge”

55.11. Nonclassical conception (theory and model) case study (L. Laudan and R. Mc Mallin)

55.12. Nonclassical models of history of philosophy of science and technics (A.S. Rozenblyum and N. Winer)

55.13. Scientific work of N. Winer “A role of models in science”

55.14. Scientific work of G.V. Bykov “Historiographic models”

55.15. Scientific work of H. Whyte “Meta-history”

55.16. Scientific work of Y.G. Neuymin “Models in science and technics”

55.17. Scientific work of A.I. Uyemov “Logical bases of a method of modeling”

RUSSIAN ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES • since 1990 y. •Text Box: of “The Russian academy of (natural) sciences” named after V.N. Veniaminov 
Text Box: The scientific-research institute
Text Box: “System and financial analysis 
based on cognitive modeling technology”
Text Box: SIO “Academy of cognitive natural sciences”